Electric Bikes and The Law
1. The rider must be aged at least 14
2. The electric bike must not be capable of exceeding 25kph (15.6mph) while under power
Note: Like any other cyclist, you can ride as fast as you like when the motor is not providing assistance, but you must still obey traffic laws. In practise, power usually fades away quite gradually as speed increases, so a bike that tops out at 15mph with a heavy rider, may give useful assistance at 18mph or above with a light one. In practise , you are very unlikely to be prosecuted for anything other than a wild and reckless infringement of the rules.
3. The electric bike must not weigh in excess of 40kg for a bicycle,
or 60kg for a tricycle
4. The continuous rated power of the motor must not exceed 250 watts.
5. The motor alone cannot be used to propel the bicycle, so power
can only be brought in while the rider is pedaling
These rules are not very onerous in themselves, but be warned: if you are prosecuted for breaking any one of them you will no longer be covered by the exemptions that apply to electric bicycles, but bear in mind that in three of the five above, the court would have to decide which law actually applied. In theory, anyone riding an electric bicycle at, for example, 18mph, could be prosecuted for riding a moped without a helmet, insurance, vehicle excise duty, MoT certificate, etc, etc. If caught riding while under-age or disqualified from driving, you would effectively by driving without a license, a serious offence. In practise, prosecutions are extremely rare, as the police have much better things to do than chase electric bicycles, but it’s worth knowing the rules.
Some electric bikes look very similar to mopeds or scooters, with fairings and motorcycle-style suspension. These machines are perfectly legal, provided they have pedals and obey all the rules above. The problem with riding one is that very few policemen will be aware of this loophole in the legislation, and you are liable to be stopped and cross-examined on a regular basis, unless you take to wearing a motorcycle helmet. In general, bicycle styling is a good idea!